The suburb is named after Francis and Catherine Shailer, who arrived with their children in the area in 1866. Like many farmers in the area, they first grew cotton and later sugar. The Shailers were probably best known for their fruit growing and operated the first citrus orchard in southern Queensland, situated in Slacks Creek. The land selected by Francis Shailer was situated to the north of the current Shailer Road. Francis was a teacher at the first and second Slacks Creek Provisional Schools. He was also the first Clerk of the Tingalpa Divisional Board in 1880. The Shailers intermarried with other pioneering families in the district including the Dennis family, who were related to the Markwells, as well as the Murrays, who had an adjoining property along the Logan River. The property still exists at the end of Murrays Road.
Francis’ son Alfred later farmed the area now known as Daisy Hill. At that time it was called Oakey Mountain and was owned by his grandfather, James Dennis. Alf's son Glen Shailer also farmed this property. Glen carried on the family's tradition of involvement in local government. He was elected to the Albert Shire Council in 1961 and served almost continuously until 1985. He was elected Mayor of Logan City in 1982 and served for one term.
Shailer Park was originally named as a district in 1971, then as a sub-district of Slacks Creek in 1977. It was officially named a suburb in 1991. The Kimberley Park estate was developed from 1973 and the Kimberley Park State School opened 29 January 1985. The Logan Hyperdome shopping centre opened in 1989 on the site of a former water park.
The Logan Hyperdome Library opened in 1998 with a major refurbishment in 2014.